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In Vivo Toxicity Assessment of Chitosan-Coated Lignin Nanoparticles in Embryonic Zebrafish ().

TitleIn Vivo Toxicity Assessment of Chitosan-Coated Lignin Nanoparticles in Embryonic Zebrafish ().
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsStine JS, Harper BJ, Conner CG, Velev OD, Harper SL
JournalNanomaterials (Basel)
Date Published2021 Jan 06

Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer on Earth after cellulose. Since lignin breaks down in the environment naturally, lignin nanoparticles may serve as biodegradable carriers of biocidal actives with minimal environmental footprint compared to conventional antimicrobial formulations. Here, a lignin nanoparticle (LNP) coated with chitosan was engineered. Previous studies show both lignin and chitosan to exhibit antimicrobial properties. Another study showed that adding a chitosan coating can improve the adsorption of LNPs to biological samples by electrostatic adherence to oppositely charged surfaces. Our objective was to determine if these engineered particles would elicit toxicological responses, utilizing embryonic zebrafish toxicity assays. Zebrafish were exposed to nanoparticles with an intact chorionic membrane and with the chorion enzymatically removed to allow for direct contact of particles with the developing embryo. Both mortality and sublethal endpoints were analyzed. Mortality rates were significantly greater for chitosan-coated LNPs (Ch-LNPs) compared to plain LNPs and control groups. Significant sublethal endpoints were observed in groups exposed to Ch-LNPs with chorionic membranes intact. Our study indicated that engineered Ch-LNP formulations at high concentrations were more toxic than plain LNPs. Further study is warranted to fully understand the mechanisms of Ch-LNP toxicity.

Alternate JournalNanomaterials (Basel)
PubMed ID33418857
PubMed Central IDPMC7825063
Grant List2013-67021-21181 / / U.S. Department of Agriculture /
P30 ES000210 / NH / NIH HHS / United States
T32 GM008776-15 / NH / NIH HHS / United States
R01ES017552 / NH / NIH HHS / United States
CMMI-1825476 / / National Science Foundation /
P30 ES000210 / ES / NIEHS NIH HHS / United States

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